Posts Tagged ‘Breast Cancer’

Breast Cancer

// October 7th, 2012 // No Comments » // Cancer

Breast cancer is one of the most common types of cancer and one of the most serious diseases of women. Breast cancer can be viewed as a cancerous tumor found in the cells of the breast.  It is very important to study this disease because it has negative consequences for women of different age groups. The statistical data shows that more than 450,000 women die each year throughout the entire world. One of the most dangerous types of breast cancer is TNBC or triple-negative subtype of breast cancer, which is represented by such tumors as ER- tumors, PR- tumors, and HER2- tumors. As a rule, these tumors are very aggressive because their activity leads to intensive tumor growth and creates large size tumors which are very dangerous for women’s health. It is known that the major treatment methods in this case include radiation therapy, chemotherapy and surgery. TNBC is also well-known as basal-like breast cancer. The statistics shows that TNBC has increased incidence in African women and in those patients who have germ-line BRCA1 mutations. Triple-negative breast cancer is considered to be the most dangerous of all types as women with TNBC diagnosis have the poorer survival than those who have other types of breast cancer.

The authors of the article report the following clinical finding about the triple-negative breast cancer subtype: there are many subtype-specific mutations which represent certain changes that can be used for concrete identification of certain genomic aberrations and some other events closely connected with tumor biology processes.

This finding is so novel because the authors’ common findings of TP53, RB1 and BRCA1 loss, with MYC amplification, provide evidence that these are “shared driving events for basal-like and serous ovarian carcinogenesis” (Comprehensive Molecular Portraits of Human Breast Tumors 7). (more…)

Breast Cancer

// September 28th, 2012 // No Comments » // Impotence

Nowadays cancer is one of the incurable diseases, which every day take hundreds of deaths all over the world. Though cancer has been known since ancient times, medicines for its treatment have been developed only in the middle of the twentieth century. Today doctors managed to reduce the mortality, caused by cancer, with the help of a complicated systemic treatment. However, this disease is not completely investigated. Today the most widespread forms of cancer are lung cancer and breast cancer. According to the data of the National Breast Cancer Foundation it is the fifth cause of cancer death(The National Breast Cancer Foundation). Therefore, it is necessary to be well-informed about the peculiarities of the disease and the ways of its early discovering.

First of all it is necessary to know the risk groups as there are some risk factors that add the possibility of cancer development. About half of all the women with this diagnosis are over 65. Moreover, among risk factors there is excess weight, taking of hormone medicines, radiation therapy of breast area. The reproducible history of women also plays an important role. Late menopause, childbirth at older age or not having given birth might influence cancer development in future. Women should also pay attention to their lifestyle and diets. Overuse of alcohol drinks, fattening food and lack of physical activity have negative impact on human health in general and might lead to breast cancer in particular.

Cancer cells develop much faster than healthy cells, therefore it is very important to detect dangerous lumps as early as possible and to undertake the necessary measures to stop the development of cancer. Breast cancer can affect both men and women, though among men the cases are rarer. Tumors usually form in ducts and mammary glands. They might grow either quickly or slowly and the cells might spread to other organs and tissues. This process is called metastasis. At early stages breast cancer does not cause pain. However, it has its symptoms, which it is necessary to know. Very often women can find the lumps themselves. Cancer tumors might result in the change of the look of breasts or nipples or of how they feel. Tenderness of nipples or their discharge, changed form of a nipple or some thickenings are most likely the signs of cancer tumors. (more…)

Nolvadex tamoxifen

// October 13th, 2010 // No Comments » // Cancer

NOLVADEX is effective in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer in women and men. In premenopausal women with metastatic breast cancer, NOLVADEX is an alternative to oophorectomy or ovarian irradiation. Available evidence indicated that patients whose tumors are estrogen receptor positive arc more likely to benefit from NOLVADEX therapy. Adjuvant Treatment of Breast Cancer: NOLVADEX is indicated for the treatment of node-positive breast cancer in postmenopausal women following total mastectomy or segmental mastectomy, axillary dissection, and breast irradiation. NOLVADEX is also indicated for the treatment of axillary node-negative breast cancer in women following total mastectomy or segmental mastectomy, axillary dissection, and breast irradiation. In addition, NOLVADEX reduces the occurrence of contra lateral breast cancer in patients receiving adjuvant therapy with NOLVADEX for breast cancer. Ductal Carcinoma in Situ (DCIS): In women with DCIS, following breast surgery and radiation, NOLVADEX is indicated to reduce the risk of invasive breast cancer. (See BOXED WARNING at the beginning of full prescribing information.) Reduction in Breast Cancer Incidence in High-Risk Women: NOLVADEX is indicated to reduce the incidence of breast cancer in women at high risk for breast cancer. NOLVADEX is indicated only for high-risk women. “High risk” is defined as women at least 35 years of age with a 5-year predicted risk of breast cancer a 1.67%, as calculated by the Gail Model. (See Full prescribing information.)