My Writings. My Thoughts.

Human Papilloma Virus

Human papilloma virus (HPV) belongs to the family Papillomaviridae, a group of DNA-containing viruses with two-stranded DNA. The human papilloma virus was first discovered in 1982, after the correlation of the cow papilloma virus transforming and causing tumors in cows. It was discovered in Germany by Harold Zur Hausen, he discovered that a papilloma virus was present in cervical cancer. During this time, scientific studies originally focused on the bovine virus were shifted to study the human papilloma virus. Dr. Schlegal of Gergetown Medicine’s Lombarrdi Comprehensive Cancer Center, has been studying the human papilloma for almost 20 years. He and colleagues have been trying to study the complexities of HPV and its oncogenes, cancer causing genes, and how it immortalizes and transforms cells. Through their studies, they have been successful in combating a few stands of the virus and finding ways to prevent them from infecting humans.

Human papilloma virus contains core protein of three types and complexes of closed ring-shaped DNA with cellular histones. HPV reproduction occurs in the nucleus, where DNA is synthesized. Continue Reading

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

In this paper we are going to discuss the issues related to post-traumatic stress disorder, namely, its definition, recognition, causes, symptoms, ways of treatment and avoiding. Although acknowledged only in the 20th century this type of psychological disorder has a rather long history and remains an acute problem for psychological research.

“Post-traumatic stress disorder is a type of anxiety disorder that’s triggered by an extremely traumatic event. You can develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) when a traumatic event happens to you or when you see a traumatic event happen to someone else” (Barnes, 2008). Usually this is a reaction to some kind of psychological trauma, which could be the result of physical harm as well. This type of disorder might be stimulated by a death of a close person, by a threat of death, threat or fact of serious physical harm and so on. Some psychologists would split psychological trauma from the physical one, but mostly in the case of PTSD these two are very closely related. Important is that PTSD differs from traumatic stress due to its prolonged duration and higher intensity.

Often people, who had to come through traumatic events can cope with their psychological problems themselves and within a rather short period of time, however there are cases, when the symptoms are getting worse with time and such state continues for months or even years and may lead to post-traumatic stress disorder.

PTSD is not a modern syndrome; the earliest reports come from the 6th century BC, when this type of stress was mostly associated with battles and military people. Such cases were described by Herodotus, the famous Greek historian, he wrote about an Athenian soldier, who became blind without getting any physical injuries, but after he witnessed the death of his fellow soldier (Yehuda, 2002). Speaking about modern interpretation of the syndrome we should mention the 1970s, when Vietnam veterans faced such problems. The term – PTSD was formally accepted in 1980.

The first signs of PTSD appear during the first three months after the event took place, in same rare cases it may happen several months or even years later. There is a list of common symptoms of PTSD:

-                flashbacks of the traumatic event

-                feeling of guilt

-                unpleasant dreams about the traumatic event

-                feeling of anger and irritation

-                worsening of the relationships with family/friends

-                self-destruction, like for example misuse of alcohol

-                problems with memorizing and concentration

-                difficulties with sleeping

-                loss of interest towards activities, which used to be enjoyable (Barnes, 2008).

All these symptoms do not remain constant, they appear and disappear, transform into each other and substitute each other. Some events can cause unpleasant recollections and memories or associations with the past traumatic events. The major cause for PTSD is said to be psychological trauma, related to experiencing as well as witnessing emotional or physical abuse or assault, also such types of employment as soldiers or emergency service workers. Children can also suffer from PTSD, often the causes are related to age-inappropriate sexual experience.  Not only direct experience of traumatic events, also witnessing them may cause PTSD.

In order to diagnose post-traumatic stress disorder it is necessary to make a psychological evaluation of signs and symptoms, which are listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders published by the American Psychiatric Association. A doctor should work with a patient, asking questions about the symptoms a person is experiencing, the degrees of these symptoms, the situations, when they occur and so on. Usually this is also necessary for the doctor to have concrete information about the event, which led to these symptoms. Sometimes, doctors take a decision to make an additional test for other psychological problems.

Psychological problems, related to PTSD may lead to other health complications, as for example some individuals start to take drugs, to abuse alcohol or food, tend to long depressions or even suicide.

This is clear that in case a person, suffering from PTSD, can not cope with this problem himself within a short period of time, it is necessary to apply treatment. There are various forms of psychotherapy, which are used for treating trauma related problems. Good results are brought by cognitive therapy, as well as group therapy, which helps to avoid feeling of isolation in the society. The psychotherapy programs with the strongest demonstrated efficacy are all cognitive behavioral programs and include variants of exposure therapy, stress inoculation training (SIT), variants of cognitive therapy (CT), eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), and combinations of these procedures”( Morgan, 2008). One of the key points for successful psychological help is the therapeutic distress of painful memories and positive emotional processing of the memories connected to trauma. The most widely used techniques for therapy programs are imaginal confrontation and real-life exposure to trauma reminders. As for exposure application there are different points of view, some researchers state, that there is a strong need for it, others argue, that other approaches, like social supports are not less important. For example the practical results of interpersonal therapy proved to be rather positive in terms of remission from PTSD.

When scientists worked on the prevention means for the people after a traumatic incident, aiming at deterioration of full-blown occurrence of PTSD, they developed the so-called Critical Incident Stress Management, which presumes early intervention following the traumatic incident (Morgan, 2008). However the more detailed researches proved, that the effect of this method is not beneficial and even bad in some cases. Speaking about early medical intervention, only some cognitive therapies and certain medications, like for example propranolol proved to be appropriate.

In general medications are considered to be successful for reducing PTSD symptoms, but they can not be responsible for complete remission. “Standard medication therapy useful in treating PTSD includes SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) and TCAs (tricyclic antidepressants). Tricyclics tend to be associated with greater side effects and lesser improvement of the three PTSD symptom clusters than SSRIs. SSRIs for which there are data to support use include: citalopram, escitalopram, fluvoxamine, paroxetine and sertraline” (Yehuda, 2002). However the concrete list of medications for each patient should be composed by a doctor individually. There are various types of antidepressants, which would help to escape from depression, anxiety and concentration. Anti-anxiety medications improve feelings of stress. Normally the improvements of the mood and psychological state are expected within several weeks.

Overall, we studied the historical development and modern interpretations of the notion and nature of post-traumatic stress disorder, along with its major symptoms, complications, ways of diagnostics and medical help. This type of disorder is unfortunately a rather widespread phenomenon and thus this sphere needs further profound research and development for better medication as well as prevention strategies application for the potential risk groups.

Somatoform Disorders

Somatoform diseases is a problem which attracts more and more attention nowadays. Somatform diseases is a confusing and difficult area of research. Specialists of many medical fields unite their efforts in order to study this problem. Somatation diseases are usually used to defined diseases with medically unexplained symptoms. Cultural diversity of somatiform diseases is an object of special interest. Till recent time this question was investigated not enough. As states RRRRRR: “Cross-cultural differences in somatization have remained rather anecdotal in the absence of comparative epidemiological surveys utilizing such methodologies as specific diagnostic criteria and structured interviews” (RRRRRRR). Fortunately during the recent time a number of research has been made in order to find the correlation between somatioform diseases and national belonging. These researches gave new data which gave new information on the topic.  Continue Reading

Schizophrenia

In this paper we are going to discuss metal disorder, known under the name of schizophrenia, its definition, causes, ways of diagnostics and treatment. This type of brain disorder is unfortunately rather widespread – researchers state, that around one percent of the whole population suffers from this disease. There are no essential differences between genders for this disorder, but according to the statistics, men suffer from it in their early twentieth, whereas women, in late twentieth or early thirties. What is really terrifying about this disorder, is that only one of five individuals is able to recover completely, the rest continue to suffer from the symptoms of the disease for the rest of their lives. This is clear, that various medications are developing all the time and a number of researches are done for more precise identification of the major causes of this disease.

The very first signals of schizophrenia can be usually traced in the confusing and even shocking changes in behavior of a person. Sudden severe psychotic symptoms are called acute phase of schizophrenia (Bertelsen, 2002). “Psychosis, a common condition in schizophrenia, is a state of mental impairment marked by hallucinations, which are disturbances of sensory perception, and/or delusions, which are false yet strongly held personal beliefs that result from an inability to separate real from unreal experiences” (Schneider, 1999). Sometimes there are also less severe symptoms, such as isolation from society, unusual ways of speaking and behaving. People, suffering from this disorder may have only one psychotic episode, or may have several episodes during their lives. Their life between these episodes seems to be quite normal, however there is a strong necessity to constantly control the symptoms and support an individual with medication, because especially people with chronic forms of the disease cannot recover completely.

For the doctors this is really important to diagnose exactly the illness, based on the results of a physical examination and laboratory tests. There is a number of drugs, which could cause the symptoms, which are close to those of schizophrenia. Thus samples of blood and urine should be additionally checked by doctors. Besides, there are a lot of symptoms, which seem very much alike for various disorders, and sometimes it difficult to be sure, whether the patient is suffering form depression, bipolar disorder or schizophrenia.

“The most widely used standardized criteria for diagnosing schizophrenia come from the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, version DSM-IV-TR, and the World Health Organization’s International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, the ICD-10” (Goldner, 2008). In the revised fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders we could find the following diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia:

Characteristic symptoms: two or more of the below mentioned symptoms, each should be present for most of the time within one-month period: delusions, hallucinations, problems with speech organization, not adequate behavior; negative symptoms: decline of emotional reactions, alogia (decline in speaking), avolution (decline of motivation).

Social/occupational dysfunction: an individual starts to experience difficulties at work or in interpersonal relations.

Duration: The signs of disturbance continue for around six months, including one month of symptoms (Goldner, 2008).

Distorted perceptions of reality are also symptoms of schizophrenia. The world of hallucinations and delusions makes people, suffering from this disorder, confused and frightened. Their perception of reality, which varies a lot from that of others, has certainly a strong impact upon their behavior, which can be changed from calmness and detachment to constant moving and anxiety.

Hallucinations and illusions are common for most of the people with schizophrenia. Sensory forms of hallucinations are various: auditory (sound), visual (sight), tactile (touch), gustatory (taste), and olfactory (smell), hearing voices that other people do not hear is the most common type of hallucination in schizophrenia (Bertelsen, 2002). Illusions happen in cases, when there is real sensory stimulus, but the interpretation of it is distorted by the individual.

Delusions are also symptoms of schizophrenia and are “false personal beliefs that are not subject to reason or contradictory evidence and are not explained by a person’s usual cultural concepts” (Bertelsen, 2002). Around one third of all patients with schizophrenia diagnosis experience the delusions of persecution – they think, that somebody wants to cheat or even poison them. Sometimes there are cases, when patients believe, that they are famous people.  Often the delusions are not logical or real, like for example that people in the street are reading their thoughts or are trying to control them with the help of magnetic waves.

People suffering from schizophrenia often have problems with thinking, as their thoughts are changed very quickly and they cannot concentrate upon certain idea for a long period of time. Sometimes they are not aware of the relevance/irrelevance of some things to the situation they are in. They lack the logical sequence of their thoughts, which certainly has a negative impact upon their ability to build argumentative and logical speech. Problems in communication might lead to social isolation of an individual.

Lack of emotional expression is another symptom of schizophrenia, certainly in this case we are speaking about severe reduction of emotional expressiveness.  Such people are speaking in monotonous voice and seem very apathetic, they avoid usual contacts and interaction with other people. All this results in lowering of motivation and interests. In some cases such patients lose interest even in making basic hygienic procedures. These symptoms have nothing to do with the character of a person or his attitude to others.

Researches prove, that not all causes of schizophrenia are well known and studied, thus current methods of treatment are based on clinical research along with experience. The major aims of the treatment are to reduce the symptoms and the possibility of their repetition. Already in 1950s the first antipsychotic medications were developed. They are able to reduce the symptoms of schizophrenia and support the general functioning of an individual. Till the moment they are considered to be the best drugs, but their essential drawback is, that they cannot cure schizophrenia or guarantee, that there will be no psychotic episodes in the future again.

Physicians, who are specialized on mental disorders should prescribe the type of medication and dosage individually in each individual case, because, in spite of very alike symptoms, the amount of drugs needed for each patient is still various. Most of the patients show improvements after treatment with antipsychotic drugs. There are however other groups of patients, first of all those, who seem to have little positive reaction to medicines and those, who even do not need them. It is difficult for researchers at the moment to define the concrete signs for splitting patients strictly into these groups.

As it was already mentioned, antipsychotic medications can reduce the risk of future psychotic episodes, but still there are cases, when even after drug treatment and after a patients seems to recover, there is possibility of relapses. Discontinuation of medication is certainly a very important factor for higher relapse rates (Becker, 2006). For some patients dosages of medications are increased in order to reduce the intensity and frequency of psychotic symptoms.

When we speak about treatment with the help of antipsychotic drugs we should be clear, that such type of medications helps to reduce such psychotic symptoms like hallucinations, delusions and so on, but they could provide minimum help for difficulties in communication and relationships with other people. Psychological approach to treatment might be of great support for these symptoms. There are a lot of forms of psychological therapy for people suffering from schizophrenia, which aim at improvements of social functioning of a person.

The process of rehabilitation also involves a number of non-medical support for patients. “Programs may include vocational counseling, job training, problem-solving and money management skills, use of public transportation, and social skills training” (Becker, 2006).

Some psychotherapists apply individual approaches, which are based on communication between a patient and a psychiatrist or psychologist. During such conversations with trained empathic specialists, patients, suffering from this mental disorder usually have the chance to learn more about their problems and, relying on the psychological help of a specialist are able to solve some of them.

Overall, in this paper we studied the issues of schizophrenia, as one of the frequent mental disorders; its major symptoms, defined by the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, version DSM-IV-TR and the ways of diagnosing them; approaches to treatment of schizophrenia, including medication along with psychological help for patients. This is evident, that this sphere is not fully studied yet, and probably in future a lot of other medications and ways of diagnosing and treatment might be applied.

Renal Disease

Although each disease has a tremendous destructive impact on the human organism it is very hard to underestimate the impact of the kidneys for the maintenance of correct body functions. The disease of the kidneys makes it impossible for a human body to work properly as it faces certain complications. The reasons the kidneys are so important for the human organism is because they are organic filters of the human blood. They do not only clear the blood from of the “impurities” but also play the role of blood-balance controller as they control the correct amount of electrolytes and red blood cells in the organism. Another vital function of the kidneys is the fact that they control the blood pressure. The kidneys also controls the blood circulation form the aorta to the heart. As the kidneys monitor the waste products of the organism they leave only the required elements in the organism and control the acid balance of a human organism. All these functions make the kidneys one of the most important organs on the body. According to the researches of the University of Pennsylvania the amount of patients with renal disease is constantly growing. The US government pays twelve billion each year to cover the therapy costs (Kobrin & Aradhye, 1997).

Along with this fact, renal disease (the disease of the kidney) results in serious complications for the health of the individual and requires special interventions for a patient admitted to the hospital with this condition. This is the reason the correct intervention measures are vital for the improvement of the renal disease problems as it cause more and more patients with hypertension and diabetes as a consequence. Continue Reading

Pre-Diabetes

Diabetes is a very serious disease that threatens to the health and life of many people. In spite of the progress of the modern medicine and science, this disease still remains among the most dangerous since its complications contribute to the development of a variety of other serious diseases, including numerous cardio-vascular problems. In such a situation, the development of effective preventive measures is necessary to minimize the risk of negative effects of diabetes as well as the progress of this disease at large. In this respect, one of the major goals of health care providers as well as patients suffering from diabetes is the observance of the strict diet which should prevent patients from the consumption of sugary food that increases the risk of complications and rapid progress of diabetes.

Speaking about the problem of diabetes and its prevention, it should be said that this disease is the subject of numerous researches of scientists worldwide. Nevertheless, it is still hardly possible to speak about the development of absolutely effective treatment that could cure all patients in all cases of diabetes. However, many researches (Eberhart and Rother) underline the fact that the diet is one of the major conditions of the successful treatment of diabetes and prevention of its negative effects.

First of all, it should be said that specialists (Eberhart) point out that diabetes is the disease that, to a significant extent, defined by human lifestyle. It is not a secret that the lifestyle of modern people tends to be sedative, while the food consumption is practically uncontrollable. Moreover, M.S. Eberhart emphasizes the fact that in the result of the consumption of sugary food and food containing a large amount of fat the risk of the development of diabetes increases dramatically (1066). This is why K.I. Rother recommends minimizing the consumption of sugary food in order to decrease risks that accompany diabetes (1499).

At the same time, specialists (Eberhart and Rother) argue that the limitation of consumption of sugary food is accompanied by certain difficulties. Basically, the major problem is the psychological unpreparedness of patients to keep the strict diet and often people do not follow the recommendations of health care professionals and consume sugary food. Rother points out that such a limitation in the diet of an individual may lead to the development of a psychological stress (1500). In addition, Eberhart indicates to even more serious problem, the problem of the food culture and the food that is consumed by people (1067). What is meant here is the fact that food consumed by people daily contain different elements and often people do not even know what they actually eat, while the food that is available in fast food restaurants as a rule has a large amount of sugar and fat that makes it quite dangerous to the health of patients since it leads not only to the development of obesity but also to the serious complications of diabetes. Consequently, it is difficult for patients to avoid the consumption of sugary food because of its wide spread and the lack of information about ingredients of products they consume.

Traditionally, patients suffering from diabetes were recommended to keep the strict diet and avoid the consumption of sugary food. Formally, the strategy is quite simply but, in actuality, it is quite difficult to implement it because of the psychological problem and the problem of the lack of information about the food ingredients. In this respect, this traditional strategy should improved in order to facilitate the diet of patients.

To put it more precisely, it is necessary to introduce a clear diet so that patients could know what exactly they should eat. For instance, they have to consume a larger amount of fiber and grains and they should know that they cannot consume products unless they are sure that the level of sugar in this product is acceptable for them (Rother, 1500). Furthermore, patients should also pay a particular attention to their lifestyle. They should more active, practice some sport, or just walk more to improve their physical shape that decreases the risk of negative effects of diabetes and minimizes the negative impact of the consumption of sugary food (Eberhart, 1068).

Thus, it is possible to conclude that the prevention of the consumption of sugary food is of a paramount importance for patients suffering from diabetes. In this respect, it is necessary to emphasize that people should keep the diet strictly and they should informed about products which they can consume and which they cannot. Finally, it is necessary to change their lifestyle and be more active.

 

The Effectiveness of Non-Pharmacological Treatments for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Traditionally, the problem of obsessive-compulsory disorder and its treatment was very important since in many cases the traditional ways of treatment of mental disorder, among which pharmacological ones were among the most widely spread, turned to be inefficient or of low efficiency. The situation was deteriorated by the lack of information about the causes and development of the disorder. As a result, it was quite difficult to make a correct choice in proper treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder which is getting to be an increasingly more serious problem since along with the growth of population and higher psychological pressure the number of individuals suffering from this disorder also increases. At the same time, the scientists keep working on the problem of obsessive-compulsive disorder and in recent years there is a strong trend to the wide use of non-pharmacological treatment of this disorder. Continue Reading

Fat and protein content

In order to be fit and conduct a healthy life-style one should count fat in those dishes and foods he consumes. Personally I should count the percentage of fat in my favorite foods and dishes I consume quite often on breakfast, dinner and supper.

The dish for dinner chosen is a chicken backed with lemon and potato. For this dish which is cooked for 35 minutes the following ingredients are combined: chicken breasts which are stated to contain 18, 20 grams of proteins, 18, 40 grams of fat and 241 total calories; a clove of garlic that contains 6, 5 grams of proteins and 0 grams of fat with total 46, 00 calories; potato which contains 2 grams of protein, 0, 40 grams of fats and 80 calories in total. Taking into consideration the way it is backed and general rules of preparation the dish is said to contain 16 grams of fat and 320 calories in total. Now applying the mathematic formula we can count the percentage of fat in this food.  The general amount of fat in grams we multiply by 9 (as each gram of fat contains nine calories), and this figure we divide into the general amount of calories (320); after that we multiply this number by100 and  we get the percentage of fat in the dish.

That is:

16 * 9 = 144

144 / 320 = 0, 45

0, 45 * 100 = 45 %

So, the percentage of fat in the chicken backed with lemon and potato is 45 % and it is quite fatty food.

The dish chosen to calculate percentage of fat for breakfast is fried eggs with backed with tomatoes.

Ingredients: tomatoes (1, 10 grams of protein), garlic, olive oil (0 gram of protein), and eggs (12, 70 grams of protein). The total number of calories – 204. and the dich contains 16 grams of fat. By conducting the same calculations according to the mathematical formula used for the above described dish we get:

16 (the total number of fat) * 9 = 144

144 / 204 = 0, 70

0, 70 * 100 = 70 %

All in all, the amount of fat in this dish is extremely high, 70 % out of 100%.

Lunch dish is Greek salad with macaroni. Calories – 418, fat – 23 grams.

23 * 9 = 207

207 / 418 = 0, 49

0, 49 * 100 = 49 %

49 % out of 100 %.

To conclude, after made calculation it is vivid that some all the dishes are fat and lack of protein.

 

strеss

It is bеliеvеd thаt mоrе thаn 50% оf аll visits tо dосtоrs аrе initiаlly саusеd by strеss. Mаny hеаlth саrе рrоfеssiоnаls соnsidеr strеss аs оnе оf thе fundаmеntаl rеаsоns fоr illnеssеs suсh аs саnсеr аnd hеаrt аttасk. Оthеrs hаvе аlrеаdy рrоvеd thаt humаns undеr strеss аrе mоrе vulnеrаblе аnd nоt rеsistаnt tо triviаl disеаsеs suсh аs simрlе flu. Numеrоus соuрlеs аll аrоund thе wоrld аnd еsресiаlly Еurоре аnd USА аrе struggling in hаving thеir оwn bаbiеs bесаusе оf strеss. Mоrе thаn 60% оf аll mеn оn this рlаnеt suffеr thе раins оf inflаmеd hеmоrrhоids thе mаin rеаsоns fоr whiсh аrе thе wоrk undеr рrеssurе аnd thе inаbility оf mееting numеrоus tight dеаdlinеs (Sароlsky 1992). Thus it is imроrtаnt tо mеаsurе thе lеvеl оf strеss аnd еxрlоrе рhysiсаl fасtоrs indiсаting thе lеvеl оf strеss.

Еаrly in thе 20th сеntury, Wаltеr Саnnоn’s rеsеаrсh in biоlоgiсаl рsyсhоlоgy lеd him tо dеsсribе thе “fight оr flight” rеsроnsе оf thе Symраthеtiс Nеrvоus Systеm (SNS) tо реrсеivеd thrеаts tо рhysiсаl оr еmоtiоnаl sесurity. Thе fight-flight rеsроnsе is аn аutоmаtiс сhаngе оf рhysiоlоgiсаl mаrkеrs thаt tаkе рlасе whеn а реrsоn suddеnly реrсеivеs dаngеr оr strеss (Саnnоn 1929). Blооd flоw is signifiсаntly dесrеаsеd in thе еxtrеmitiеs whilе bеing inсrеаsеd tо thе vitаl оrgаns оf thе bоdy. This еnаblеs а реrsоn tо rеасt рhysiсаlly tо dаngеr. This рhysiоlоgiсаl сhаngе wаs vеry fаvоrаblе аnd sеrvеd аs аn аutоmаtiс рrоtесtiоn dеviсе, in рrimitivе sосiеty. Аlthоugh thе fight-flight rеsроnsе hаs bееn bеnеfiсiаl аnd nесеssаry fоr survivаl, it саn аlsо bе hаrmful. If wе оvеrusе this nаturаl rеsроnsе by соnstаntly intеrрrеting things аs bеing strеssful оr dаngеrоus, thаt rеаlly аrе nоt, wе аrе сhrоniсаlly sеnding this rеsроnsе tо thе bоdy (Rоhnrmаnn & Hеnnig & Nеttеr  2000).

Thе mаin gоаl оf hаnd-wаrming is tо аssist in mеаsuring оur lеvеl оf strеss thrоugh skin tеmреrаturе, аnd thеrеby аllоw us tо сhаngе оur strеss lеvеl tо mееt thе сirсumstаnсеs. Thе mоrе strеssеd а реrsоn is, thе lоwеr thе tеmреrаturе in thе hаnds, fееt, аnd оthеr еxtrеmitiеs. Thе lоwеr thе strеss lеvеl, thе highеr thе tеmреrаturе shоuld bе in thе еxtrеmitiеs (Rаndоlрh 1984).

Thе gоаl оf thе study is tо аnаlyzе thе еffесt оf strеss аnd rеlаxаtiоn оn fееt tеmреrаturе, аnd thе rеlаtiоn bеtwееn strеss lеvеl аnd hаnd tеmреrаturе. Stаrting hаnd tеmреrаturе mаy vаry with rооm tеmреrаturе; hаnd tеmреrаturе will bе соldеr in а соld rооm thаn in а wаrm rооm. In а rооm оf nоrmаl tеmреrаturе, whеn а реrsоn is nеithеr dеерly rеlаxеd nоr strеssеd, stаrting hаnd tеmреrаturе will bе in thе mild оr high 80′s. Fingеr tеmреrаturе оf 80°F is соnsidеrеd tо bе сооl, 75° F is соld, аnd 70° F оr bеlоw is vеry соld; 90° F is wаrm. Continue Reading

Increased rates of Chlamydia in young people as a public health concern

In Great Britain, where Chlamydia Trachomatis is the causative agent of the greatest number of curable sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), Chlamydia remains a pressing problem. According to a report made by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, at least 20 per cent of young British between the ages of 20 and 24 have Chlamydia, and in the national scale, every eighth man and every tenth woman in the average are exposed to this infection (Aggio 2009).
Almost 70 per cent of female and 50 per cent of male infected have no complains, and such a subclinical form can be observed for over a year according to Scott La Montagne Health Protection Agency of the UK (Moss 2007). As a consequence of untreated or undertreated infection the morbidity rate among young women increased significantly, mainly, they suffer from inflammation of the pelvic organs, which often leads to ectopic pregnancy and infertility. The infant morbidity is also relevant, ophthalmopathy caused by Chlamydia and pneumonia in newborns. The Chlamydia complications are rare among men and occur as epididymo-orchitis or prostatitis (Mason 2005). In general, since 1995 to 2003 the incidence of Chlamydia increased by 190 per cent (World Health Organization 2006).

Public health in practice

Currently, the impact of Chlamydia on the nation’s health is considered so significant that the government had funded two pilot screening studies in Portmund and Viral, which started last year in April (Aggio 2009). The screening program was launched after the incidence of Chlamydia rose three-fold in a few years.
Experts estimate that only 10 per cent of patients with genital chlamydial infection come to the department of urogenital diseases, which shows the need for screening in other health care institutions, including general practice. Today, carrying out the tests for this disease is offered at the family planning centers, at the reception of the therapist, as well as at colleges and universities. Such analyses are necessary, since the disease develops without any symptoms (Aggio 2009).
In addition, presently the NHS Funds offer all young people aged 16 to 24 years residing in three districts of London, to take rapid tests for Chlamydia. In the case if the young man sends his test results to the NHS staff, he will receive a certificate equal to £10, which can be spent on the purchase of audio recordings in the chain of HMV music stores. As another way to attract young Londoners to undergo the tests for the disease, the authors of the initiative will hold a lottery among the participants of the action with a popular iPod player as the main prize.
The NHS representatives hope that the mass distribution of rapid diagnostic tests for young people in the long run will save the country’s budget from the substantial costs of the treatment of complications of the genital infection. For example, a large-scale visual propaganda of the use of condoms in Sweden became one of the reasons for reducing the incidence of Chlamydia and other STIs (Götz 2002). The WHO activated the project of global strategy to prevent the sexually transmitted infectious diseases, and the project of their fighting which was started in 2002.
The project provides a framework for planning and implementation of accelerated reactive measures using two main operational elements: a) a technical component that outlines the main activities for infectious disease control (expended access to diagnosis and effective treatment, training or retraining of health personnel, strengthening of the monitoring on epidemics); b) a component of the informative and explanatory activity, which presumes a global campaign to raise awareness about sexually transmitted infectious diseases, and to form the commitment to the issue at the political level (World Health Organization 2006).

Linking theory and practice

In addition to the high incidence of Chlamydia, researchers have found that sexual activity among young British has increased: about a half of girls surveyed admitted that they had two sexual partners over the last year, and 56 per cent of boys reported having a new sexual partner every three months (Park 2007).
One should not forget that the National Health System of Great Britain has published a booklet on sex education for schoolchildren. The slogan for the booklet, which was titled Pleasure, was the phrase “an orgasm a day keeps the doctor away” (Mevissen 2009). One of its authors, Steve Slack, the director of the Center for HIV and sexual health department at Sheffield NHS, believes that the manual does not provoke teenage sex as it may seem, but rather offers the students to put off the loss of virginity until they are confident in their ability to get pleasure from it (Westwood 2006).
It should be noted that British schools pay a lot of attention to sex issues. Great Britain is one of the top states of the developed world for the number of pregnancies among adolescents. The average age at which adolescents become sexually active in the UK is 16 (Turnbull 2008). Moreover, sexually transmitted diseases occur as a result of random, fleeting sexual relationships with unfamiliar or completely unknown partners. Thus, according to the CDC data, only one third of young people use condoms (Creighton 2003). As shown by the WHO, in the number European countries it is ignorance in matters relating to STIs especially among young people that complicates controlling such diseases.

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