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BRAND-NAME VS. GENERIC DRUGS

generic drugs

generic VS brand drugs

Generic drugs are medications that are identified by their chemical composition rather than their brand, or trade, name. Most people, for example, recognize the brand name Valium, yet the generic name of this anti-anxiety drug is diazepam. You can ask for the brand name or the generic if your health-care practitioner prescribes this drug for you, although if you have a prescription drug plan, your insurance company may only pay for the cost of the generic drug.

Why Brand-Name Drugs Cost More Than Generics.

In the majority of cases, generic drugs are equally as effective as brand-name medications. They also are typically less expensive than brand names, often as much as 50 percent or more. Why is this so?
Pharmaceutical companies spend a great deal of time (usually a decade or more) and money—typically more than $300 million—researching, developing, producing, and marketing a new drug. The result of all that time and effort is, if all goes well, a brand-name drug that is patented and sold exclusively under a single trade name for 17 years, which allows the company to make back the money it invested. Once a patent expires, or if there is no patent, other companies can manufacture and sell that drug under the drug’s generic name or under different brand names. These other companies don’t have to invest all that time and money to bring the original drug to market. Therefore, they can sell the drug at a lower cost

Are Generic Drugs Really Any Good?

if you’ve been reluctant to ask your health-care practitioner or pharmacist for the generic equivalents of drugs you are taking, or if someone has told you that brand-name medications are superior to generics, consider this: did you know that major drug companies produce an estimated 70 to 80 percent of the generic drugs on the market? And did you know that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approves generic drugs only if they act in the body the same way as the original brand-name drug? So what are you waiting for?

True, there isn’t a generic form available for every brand name. Your health-care practitioner or pharmacist can tell you if generics are available, or you can check in the drug entries in the second part of this book. There are also a few rare exceptions in which the same active ingredient, produced by different manufacturers, is absorbed by the body at a different rate. This difference can mean one drug may be slightly more or less effective than another one.

For example, generic conjugated estrogens are slightly different from Premarin, a brand-name estrogen hormone, and the difference may make the generic less effective at preventing osteoporosis. If you have any questions about the bio-equivalence of any generic, ask your health-care practitioner or pharmacist about it.

GUIDELINES FOR SAFE DRUG USE

safe drug use

safe drug use

Until the day the perfect drug exists—one that relieves all your symptoms and causes no side effects—we must recognize that every drug has potential benefits as well as potential risks. To maximize the first and minimize the latter, you need to follow some guidelines concerning everything from storing drugs properly to understanding the dosage instructions.

Storing Your Medications

This seems obvious: in the bathroom medicine cabinet, right? Wrong. The heat and humidity generated in the bathroom can change the chemical composition of some drugs. The same goes for the kitchen. Because not all drugs are alike, here are some storage guidelines.

  • Ask your pharmacist how to store your prescription. The instructions should be on the prescription, but ask anyway.
  • Some medications need to be refrigerated. Make sure, however, that you only refrigerate those that should be.
  • If a drug should be refrigerated, don’t keep it at the back of the refrigerator, as some units tend to be much colder in the back and may freeze your prescription.
  • Keep medications away from excess heat and light. For example, don’t leave your prescriptions on a bureau that gets direct sunlight.
  • Keep your medications in their original containers to help prevent deterioration or losing their labels.
  • Many medications, such as narcotics and sedatives, are subject to theft. Make sure you keep all medications in a safe and perhaps unlikely place (e.g., a linen closet, pantry, or utensil drawer), especially if you have repair people or other “stranger traffic” in your home. Drugs left in bathroom medicine cabinets, for example, can easily be lifted by individuals who ask to use your bathroom. Continue Reading

COMPOUNDING PHARMACIES

COMPOUNDING PHARMACIES

COMPOUNDING PHARMACIES

When it comes to getting your prescription filled, you have more than one option: you can go to a standard pharmacy or drugstore, or you can go to a compounding pharmacy. A compounding pharmacy prepares a specialized drug product to fulfill an individual’s specific needs that cannot be met by a standard prescription.
For example: if you have difficulty swallowing a tablet or capsule, you can get your prescription prepared into a solution. Many drugs contain dyes and fillers such as lactose (e.g., decongestants, antibiotics) that can cause allergic reactions in a small percentage of people. If you are one of those people, you can get a compounding pharmacist to prepare your prescription without the offending ingredient. And if your child refuses to take a bad-tasting medication, flavoring it with cherry or grape can make the medicine go down.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) defined the limits of legitimate compounding under the FDA Modernization Act of 1997. However, although compounding pharmacists begin with an FDA-approved drug, changes they make to any given drug may convert an approved drug into an unapproved one. That means there is the potential for reactions to occur between ingredients because of the change that was made.

Compounding pharmacies are an option. Pharmacist and former FDA pharmacy compounding steering committee member Robert Tonelli said, “Whenever possible, FDA would recommend that patients use an approved drug. We have more data and reporting requirements on those to assure us of their safety and effectiveness.”

WHEN PRESCRIPTION DRUGS ARE SOLD OVER-THE-COUNTER

OVER-THE-COUNTER PHARMACIES

OVER-THE-COUNTER PHARMACIES

More than 600 ingredients or dosages that once were available by prescription only are now available over-the-counter (OTC) During the past twenty-five years, the FDA has authorized the over-the-counter sale of more than fifty drugs that previously were sold by prescription. Most of those drugs fall into the categories of decongestants, antihistamines, analgesics (painkillers), anti-ulcer, and anti-itch medications.
Drug companies like to market a prescription drug as OTC because it means more profits for them. But there is also an advantage for consumers: convenience. You don’t need to go to your health-care practitioner and get a prescription for your medications. That’s where you may also save money, depending on the type of insurance coverage you have. Some OTC versions of prescription drugs are less expensive, but in many cases they are not And while some insurance plans pay most or all of a prescription’s cost, you must foot the bill for OTC drugs.
Making the Transition to OTC. Not just any drug can make the transition from prescription to OTC. The FDA has criteria a prescription drug must meet before it can make the transition.

  • The prescription drug must have at least a three-year history of safe use
  • The OTC drug cannot cause serious side effects if it is misused
  • The medical condition the OTC drug will treat must be self-diagnosable. That’s why you can buy OTC drugs for the common cold or a headache but not for high cholesterol or Alzheimer’s disease
  • The OTC drug should relieve symptoms

In 2000, Merck & Co., maker of lovastatin (Mevacor), and Bristol-Myers Squibb, maker of pravastatin (Pravachol), petitioned the FDA to sell these two cholesterol-lowering prescription drugs over-the-counter. However, in 1997, the FDA had clearly stated in its “Guidance for Industry” statement that cholesterol-lowering drugs should be available by prescription only. One reason is that these drugs are used to treat a condition that is not self-recognizable. You must be tested for your cholesterol level, and your levels need to be monitored by a health-care practitioner. Thus cholesterol-lowering drugs do not meet one of the criteria set forth by the FDA, and Merck and Bristol-Myers Squibb were turned down.

The Safety Factor. Just because a drug is OTC does not mean it can’t cause serious side effects if it isn’t taken properly. For example: aspirin, the “wonder drug,” can cause bleeding of the stomach if taken in too high doses and, among a small percentage of people, even when taken at recommended doses. Thus any drug, prescription or OTC, should be taken according to directions or your health-care practitioner’s instructions, and regarded with caution.

How to choose online pharmacy

ONLINE PHARMACIES: ARE THEY SAFE?

It seems that you can buy just about anything over the Internet That may be a good thing when it comes to purchasing CDs and watches, but it may not be so good when it comes to prescription medications.

online pharmacy
Convenience and lower cost are the two main reasons people say they like to get their prescriptions from online pharmacies. If you don’t want to drive to a drugstore to get your prescription and you can wait a few days or a week to get your prescription in the mail, then you may find online pharmacy services convenient. However, if your child develops an earache and you want antibiotics immediately, an online pharmacy won’t be able to help you.

If you are homebound or live far from a pharmacy, online drug availability can be very convenient Online pharmacies also allow you to comparison shop for price and availability. When it comes to cost, you must consider the cost of shipping. Once you tack on postage and handling fees, the cost of your prescription may meet or exceed your neighborhood pharmacy.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) warns consumers that they should beware of shady websites, undocumented claims, and illegal deals when it comes to online prescription drugs. Here are some of the factors you should consider before you make an online purchase.

Suspect any online pharmacy that does not require you to mail in your prescription, or one that does not verify your prescription with your prescribes These practices suggest that these pharmacies have little or no regard for their customers’ health or welfare, because they do not bother to make sure individuals are getting the proper prescription and that the drugs are indeed going to the person for whom they were intended. Read more: .

Suspect any online pharmacy that dispenses drugs based solely on a questionnaire you are asked to complete online.

There is no way the recipients of your questionnaire will know whether you are telling the truth, and basically anyone can fill out a questionnaire and say they need a particular drug. Some state medical boards are taking action against health-care practitioners who prescribe medications over the Internet. Why? Because these health-care practitioners do not know you or the condition of your health. They can only rely on what you tell them.

  • Make sure the website offers a street address for the pharmacy service and a toll-free number you can call. If these are not available, do not use the site.
  • The pharmacy should have a pharmacist available to answer your questions, either via phone or E-mail correspondence. Preferably this service should be free. If no pharmacist is available, do not purchase from that site.
  • Be wary of websites that offer only a few drugs, especially “lifestyle” drugs—those that help you lose weight, improve your sexual performance, or grow hair. Such sites may not be legitimate.
  • Review the pharmacy’s guidelines regarding confidentiality of patient health-care information.
    Do not patronize any website that makes unrealistic claims about “magic cures” or quick-fix medications for serious medical conditions.
  • Question any site that claims to be backed by well-known medical institutions or government agencies without first checking to see if their claims are true. This means you’ll need to contact the institutions or agencies named (which can be done easily online via their public information offices), but it’s better to be safe than sorry.
  • Beware of foreign websites. They may be dispensing sub-potent, outdated, contaminated, or counterfeit products. Even though the Food and Drug Administration contacts foreign pharmacy sites and questions their activities, many continue to operate.
  • Look for a site that offers a money-back guarantee and promises reasonable delivery times.
  • Look for the Verified Internet Pharmacy Practices Site seal on the websites you visit This seal is an endorsement from the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy (NABP), an organization that can tell you whether a particular online pharmacy is in good standing.
  • You can also contact each state board of pharmacy (the state in which the online pharmacy is physically located) to verify the pharmacy’s legitimacy.

Different Factors which Influence Autism

Autism is a disorder which includes different symptoms. There is no agreement neither about its exact symptoms nor about its causes. The most common symptoms of autism are speech difficulties, isolation, fear, and lack of eye contact. Recent researches center on the damages autism causes to human brain. For this purpose different attempts are made in order to learn neurological  damage caused by autism. Here arises the first controversy concerning this issue. Many specialists who work on this field still can not find agreement weather brain damage becomes the reason of autism or autism causes different kinds of brain damages. Many specialists believe that brain damage is one of the causes of autism. This damaged may be caused by the environment, genetic disorder or some other reasons. Some specialists believe that autism is provoked by bio-chemical reasons and this means that these changes affect all systems of the organism and brain as well. There is another group of specialists who believe that  autism has psychiatric origin and thus there is no changes in the structure of brain. There is a theory which combines both approaches. It does not center on the reasons of autism but rather centers on its consequences. According to this theory different stages of autism have different impact on human brain. There are light cases of the disorder. In these cases the brain is not affected. In other cases of severe disorder autism becomes the reasons of serious changed in the brain.  In some cases children with autism have additional handicaps, such as blindness, deafness or even cerebral palsy.  In some rare cases children with Down’s syndrome show the sings of autism as well.    Continue Reading

Breast Cancer

Breast cancer is one of the most common types of cancer and one of the most serious diseases of women. Breast cancer can be viewed as a cancerous tumor found in the cells of the breast.  It is very important to study this disease because it has negative consequences for women of different age groups. The statistical data shows that more than 450,000 women die each year throughout the entire world. One of the most dangerous types of breast cancer is TNBC or triple-negative subtype of breast cancer, which is represented by such tumors as ER- tumors, PR- tumors, and HER2- tumors. As a rule, these tumors are very aggressive because their activity leads to intensive tumor growth and creates large size tumors which are very dangerous for women’s health. It is known that the major treatment methods in this case include radiation therapy, chemotherapy and surgery. TNBC is also well-known as basal-like breast cancer. The statistics shows that TNBC has increased incidence in African women and in those patients who have germ-line BRCA1 mutations. Triple-negative breast cancer is considered to be the most dangerous of all types as women with TNBC diagnosis have the poorer survival than those who have other types of breast cancer.

The authors of the article report the following clinical finding about the triple-negative breast cancer subtype: there are many subtype-specific mutations which represent certain changes that can be used for concrete identification of certain genomic aberrations and some other events closely connected with tumor biology processes.

This finding is so novel because the authors’ common findings of TP53, RB1 and BRCA1 loss, with MYC amplification, provide evidence that these are “shared driving events for basal-like and serous ovarian carcinogenesis” (Comprehensive Molecular Portraits of Human Breast Tumors 7). Continue Reading

infection control

Today, the problem of infection control is of extremely important because an effective infection control is an essential condition of the effectiveness of patients’ treatment and health care services. At the same time, infection control is still imperfect in the modern health care system. In this respect, the education of students may be crucial in regard to the improvement of infection control because, if students fail to learn basics of infection control, they will be unable to maintain an effective infection control when they become professionals. In such a context, the research conducted by C.M. Mann and A. Wood, “How much do medical students know about infection control?”, is very important because the results of the study are supposed to reveal the extent to which students are prepared to infection control and implementation of basic strategies of an effective infection control.

The article was found on the ScienceDirect.com, a website containing journal articles. The search of the article was based on the subject, infection control, which allowed identifying articles related to the topic. The choice of the article by C.M. Mann and A. Wood “How much do medical students know about infection control?”was determined by the importance of understanding the effectiveness of students’ learning of infection control because it is obvious that roots of the problem of a poor infection control can be found in the imperfect education of students in this field. In addition, it is quite noteworthy to learn the findings of the researches about students’ knowledge of the problem of infection control because it helps to better understand the extent to which students are interested in the subject and learn the subject.

On analyzing the article, it should be said that the researchers mainly focused on the assessment of the knowledge of third-year medical students on infection control policy and procedures. The study was conducted at the University of Birmingham Medical School, UK. In such a way, the involvement of third-year students was supposed to reveal the extent to which they are informed on infection control policy and procedures. At this point, it should be said that the researchers selected 322 students and 156 out of which returned completed questionnaires. However, the researchers do not precise the demographic of students. To put it more precisely, they do not mention gender, origin of students, etc., which are probably considered to non-substantial by researchers and they did not pay much attention to such variables.

In terms of the study, the researchers mainly used questionnaires which they used to identify the knowledge of students on infection control, and related issues. In fact, the use of questionnaires is quite logical taking into consideration the scope of the research and a relatively short period of time spent on the study. Obviously, it would be much more difficult to use such methods as interview, for instance, though they could have been more effective in relation to the revealing the knowledge and attitude of students to the problem of infection control. At this point, it should be said that the use of interviews could have provided researchers with larger information and data which they could have used for the qualitative analysis of their study, while the use of questionnaires proved to be not very effective in this regard. In fact, questionnaires did not provide ample information for qualitative analysis of the subject of the research, though it was possible to make the general assessment of the knowledge of third-grade students on infection control, but the analysis was mainly quantitative rather than qualitative. For instance, the researchers found out that 58% of students did not know the correct indication for using alcoholic hand gel, 35% did not know the correct use of gloves, etc. In such a way, the researchers got the general statistical information on the basic knowledge of students on infection control. However, this information is apparently insufficient for the qualitative analysis of the subject and, in general, the research is quite superficial because it refers to the broad range of issues related to infection control and it is quite difficult to define whether students are really acquainted in depth with infection control or probably they are just acquainted with some elements of this problem.

In this respect, it is quite noteworthy that the researchers have found out that 49% of medical students thought that there was insufficient emphasis on infection control in their course. In such a way, it is quite logical to presuppose that the existing educational program in relation to infection control is not effective since recognized that the information they receive from their course is insufficient. Hence, the research opens the direction for further researches concerning the problem of the improvement or enlargement of educational programs in regard to infection control. In this respect, it is very important to understand the significance of infection control for the future professional career of medical students. As they become professionals the adequate use of infection control policy and procedures can be crucial for the effectiveness of their work and safety of their patients. At this point a number of ethical issues arise.

Firstly, it is obvious that the main responsibility of educators is to prepare medical students to work in accordance with the established norms and standards concerning infection control. However, the inability of educators to prepare medical students professionally and sufficiently in relation to infection control raises the question of the quality of education and the qualification of students. In such a context, it is not actually medical students’ fault solely that they are not informed on infection control but it is also the fault of their educators, which not perform their professional work effectively. Secondly, it is necessary to understand that it is patients’ health that is under a threat in case of the misuse of infection control policy and procedures by students. In such a context, it is possible to raise the question of professional ethics since health care professionals cannot expose their patients’ health to any threats, while students, being aware that their qualification and professional knowledge in regard to infection control are insufficient, should either to learn more on infection control or avoid treating patients in order not to expose their health to threats.

Thus, taking into account all above mentioned, it is possible to conclude that the research conducted by C.M. Mann and A. Wood “How much do medical students know about infection control?” is very important in regard to the understanding of the current situation in medical education concerning infection control. However, it is necessary to remember that the research is rather general than detailed and the further researches are needed because it is impossible to make definite conclusion on the basis of data collected at one university only.

Breast Cancer

Nowadays cancer is one of the incurable diseases, which every day take hundreds of deaths all over the world. Though cancer has been known since ancient times, medicines for its treatment have been developed only in the middle of the twentieth century. Today doctors managed to reduce the mortality, caused by cancer, with the help of a complicated systemic treatment. However, this disease is not completely investigated. Today the most widespread forms of cancer are lung cancer and breast cancer. According to the data of the National Breast Cancer Foundation it is the fifth cause of cancer death(The National Breast Cancer Foundation). Therefore, it is necessary to be well-informed about the peculiarities of the disease and the ways of its early discovering.

First of all it is necessary to know the risk groups as there are some risk factors that add the possibility of cancer development. About half of all the women with this diagnosis are over 65. Moreover, among risk factors there is excess weight, taking of hormone medicines, radiation therapy of breast area. The reproducible history of women also plays an important role. Late menopause, childbirth at older age or not having given birth might influence cancer development in future. Women should also pay attention to their lifestyle and diets. Overuse of alcohol drinks, fattening food and lack of physical activity have negative impact on human health in general and might lead to breast cancer in particular.

Cancer cells develop much faster than healthy cells, therefore it is very important to detect dangerous lumps as early as possible and to undertake the necessary measures to stop the development of cancer. Breast cancer can affect both men and women, though among men the cases are rarer. Tumors usually form in ducts and mammary glands. They might grow either quickly or slowly and the cells might spread to other organs and tissues. This process is called metastasis. At early stages breast cancer does not cause pain. However, it has its symptoms, which it is necessary to know. Very often women can find the lumps themselves. Cancer tumors might result in the change of the look of breasts or nipples or of how they feel. Tenderness of nipples or their discharge, changed form of a nipple or some thickenings are most likely the signs of cancer tumors. Continue Reading

Why Do People Abuse Drugs?

Today, the problem of drugs abuse is one of the most dangerous challenges the modern society is facing. In actuality, the problem of drug addiction and drug-related problems, such as crimes, expose the society to serious threats which can undermine the stability of the existing social order. In this respect, it is worth mentioning the growing crime rates related to the drug abuse, because drug addiction is one of the major causes of violent and property crimes. At the same time, the problem of drug abuse cannot be solved if causes and factors that provoke the drugs abuse are not clearly identified. In other words, in order to solve the problem, it is necessary to identify its causes and through their elimination the problem can be solved. Consequently, it is very important to research causes of the drugs abuse and factors that provoke drug consumption and addiction. The understanding of causes and factors provoking the drugs abuse is possible on the condition of a profound research of the problem, which should be based on both quantitative and qualitative analysis. The quantitative analysis will help to identify the extent to which the problem of the drugs abuse is widely spread in the modern society, major risk groups vulnerable to the drugs abuse. At the same time, the qualitative analysis will help to identify major causes and factors that influence the development of the drugs abuse. At the same time, it is important to identify risk groups, i.e. groups of people which are particularly vulnerable to the drugs abuse. At this point, it is necessary to pay a particular attention to the population, where the drug abuse is particularly widely spread, which is the poor and non-white population, where the share of drug abuse is very high compared to the share of this population in the total population of the country. In such a way, it is obvious that the drugs abuse is a complex problem which needs an efficient solution that can be found only in the result of the detailed analysis of the problem and its causes.

In actuality, the problem of the drugs abuse can hardly be underestimated because the drugs abuse provokes a number of problems which affect not only the life of a drug addict, but also his or her social environment. Moreover, many specialists (Haden, 1997) argue that the drug abuse is not a problem of an individual but it is rather a problem of the society. In this respect, it is important to distinguish two dimensions of the problem of the drugs abuse. On the one hand, the drugs abuse may be viewed as a threat to the society because a drug addict can be potentially dangerous, especially when he or she cannot afford buying drugs. As a result, addicts are forced to commit crimes and the number of drug related crimes steadily grows. In such a context, the development of the drugs abuse naturally leads to the rise of crime rates which affect the society dramatically. The rise of the drug-related crimes undermine the stability within the society as people feel unsecure, while the state needs to increase its spending on the maintenance of law enforcement agencies and penitentiary system to prevent drug-related crimes and punish criminals. Continue Reading

Microtheme Paper

The psychological state of an individual is, to a significant extent, determined by his or her environment. The environment affects an individual and not a single person can avoid the impact of the social environment. At the same time, the environment can have a negative impact on an individual to the extent that it can contribute to the development of such problems as paranoia. In this respect, many African Americans suffer from paranoia. This problem is the result of the impact of the extremely stressful environment which African Americans live in. They get used to the life in the neighborhood where they confront numerous hardships and problems. Often, they have to struggle for their survival but they have little opportunities to change their life for better.

In such a way, African Americans are constantly exposed to the stressful impact of negative factors which are widely-spread in their environment. These stressful factors undermine their psychological state and lead to the development of such serious problems as paranoia. The exposure of African Americans to threats of violent attacks makes them susceptible to the development of inexplicable fear and to the emergence of paranoid ideas. As a result, when stressful factors are accumulated, they undermine the psychological state of an individual and the more stressful the environment is the higher is the risk of the development of paranoia that is the case of many African Americans. At the same time, they have to change their lifestyle and their environment to prevent the development of paranoia, whereas the ongoing life in the extremely stressful environment increases the risk of the development of this problem. Continue Reading

Bipolar disorder

All people from time to time experience the changes of mood, periods of rise and depression. However, there is a form of psychic disorder which is called bipolar disorder (or manic depression) when the ill person experiences all emotions at the ends of emotional spectrum, sudden mood changes and loses the balance, thus being unable to lead a normal life. Those with bipolar disorder experience two types of states: periods of mania – when they are in great mood, have lots of ideas and energy and everything seems possible, and the periods of depression, when life seems empty, the ill person may stay in bed for days and even weeks, not wanting anything and seeing the world in black colors.

The most dangerous thing concerning bipolar disorder is that people suffering from it do not realize the whole fact of illness, and the extent to which the rapid changes of mood impact their life. At mania periods there may happen excess spending, unusual actions, unrealistic beliefs etc. During depression periods there is suicide risk, worsening of physical condition and mental functions etc (Mondimore, 2006).

In case of deep phase of bipolar disorder first help may be via medication: anti-seizure substances, mood regulators, antidepressants etc. However, medications should be prescribed correctly for patients with bipolar disorder, since they may deepen the effects of mania or depression (Johnson & Leahy, 2005). The complexity of the problem is increased by the variety of symptoms and variety of reactions of ill people.

Psychotherapy is a powerful tool which allows to work with causes of the disorder rather than eliminate consequences. However, the most important thing in helping bipolar people is self-treatment. Walking and art are well-known means to mild the effects of the disorder; reading, proper diet and day regimes, as well as socializing are recommended for bipolar people. Watching TV, playing video games and spending a lot of time near computers is not recommended, because these activities are deepening the effects of disorder (Miklowitz, 2002).

Also, the relatives and close people need to provide love and understanding for bipolar people, since social contacts and support are very important in both phases. In general, this disorder can be cured and in case of proper treatment life of bipolar people can be normalized.

Behavior/emotional disorders and physical activity

1. Rimmer, J., (2008). Promoting inclusive physical activity communities for people with disabilities. Research Digest, 9 (2), 1-8.

    The article under consideration is taken from President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports Research Digest. The author of the article is James H. Rimmer, working in Department of Disability and Human Development of Illinois University. The article under consideration touches upon major issues that health professionals should be aware of if they deal with people having disabilities, barriers they meet on the way to becoming physically active, the development and practical implementation of effective strategies for the physical activity levels increase, including the discussion of the current role of the National Center on Physical Activity and Disability.

2. The purpose of the study conducted is to introduce and summarize the inquiries, methods and procedures aimed at improving and maintaining function and quality of life among individuals with disabilities, older or younger alike. Its goal is also to focus on the direction of health and fitness professionals at providing accessible facilities, programs, and services to society members with different disabilities. Due to the analysis of the present day situation of health becoming a front-and-center issue for millions of people with disabilities, it is expedient to raise awareness of the population to put down physical, programmatic and attitudal barriers to achieve higher levels of physical activity.

3-4. People with disabilities confront substantial health risks, even when they wish to increase their physical activity levels they often face more barriers than general population. The multiple reasons for the increase of the inactivity factors include the growing rates of obesity, improved technology influence and the aging demographics. According to the data presented in statistics and figures, most people with disabilities do not achieve the recommended goal of thirty minutes a day at least five days a week. Continue Reading

Obesity

Obesity is a serious problem of our time. It causes serious diseases and serious damage to the health of people. During recent time obesity is mostly caused by the human factors, such as production of junk food, increase of sedentary jobs, usage of different kinds of transport and invention of numerous labour-saving mechanisms and devices. The nursing theory is aimed to identify obesity problem in the context of people’s habits, style of life, family surrounding and beliefs. Obesity is not a removed phenomenon, in many countries it became a serious threat to the health of the nation. According to the statistic data collected during the research performed in 2005 about 1.6 billion people on the planet are overweight and among these people 400 million are obese. These statistics are frightening but the predictions for 2015 are even more terrifying: according to the World Health Organization there will be 2.3 billion of overweight people and about 700 million of people will suffer from obesity. The United States of America is a country with one of the highest rates of overweight and obesity (cited in Mann, 2007).

The level of obesity is identified with the help of so called BMI (The body mass index). “BMI is defined as a person’s weight in kilograms divided by the square of their height in meters (kg/m2)” (Caraher, 2005, p. 112). Increasing rates of obesity will definitely result in the increase of health problems rates. Such health problems as high blood pressure, gallbladder disease and gallstones, osteoarthritis and gout are also often caused by obesity.

It is a common knowledge that women are more likely to be obese but nowadays the rates of childhood obesity also grow. Cases of obesity are more common among women: approximately 75% of women are obese at the age of 20-60, while among men this index is less and makes only 50% (Caraher, 2005). The latest research shows than about 20 million children are suffering from overweight or obesity. Children’s obesity is alarming and frightening because, firstly, it is much more difficult to overcome and, secondly, its consequences are much more serious than adults’ obesity.  Cases of obesity among children increase every year. Continue Reading

STOP TUBERCULOSIS!

Tuberculosis, or TB, is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  Usually the bacteria attack the lungs; however it can affect any part of the body: brain, spine, and kidney. Without the proper treatment, TB disease can be fatal.

Statictics

World Health Organization (WHO) repots that nearly two million deaths from TB and about nine million new cases occur world-wide every year. Among curable infectious diseases TB takes the first place as the cause of death. In 1993 WHO declared tuberculosis a global emergency and world pandemic. Globally TB is one of the three deadliest diseases, along with Aids and malaria. Continue Reading

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