Different Factors which Influence Autism

Autism is a disorder which includes different symptoms. There is no agreement neither about its exact symptoms nor about its causes. The most common symptoms of autism are speech difficulties, isolation, fear, and lack of eye contact. Recent researches center on the damages autism causes to human brain. For this purpose different attempts are made in order to learn neurological  damage caused by autism. Here arises the first controversy concerning this issue. Many specialists who work on this field still can not find agreement weather brain damage becomes the reason of autism or autism causes different kinds of brain damages. Many specialists believe that brain damage is one of the causes of autism. This damaged may be caused by the environment, genetic disorder or some other reasons. Some specialists believe that autism is provoked by bio-chemical reasons and this means that these changes affect all systems of the organism and brain as well. There is another group of specialists who believe that  autism has psychiatric origin and thus there is no changes in the structure of brain. There is a theory which combines both approaches. It does not center on the reasons of autism but rather centers on its consequences. According to this theory different stages of autism have different impact on human brain. There are light cases of the disorder. In these cases the brain is not affected. In other cases of severe disorder autism becomes the reasons of serious changed in the brain.  In some cases children with autism have additional handicaps, such as blindness, deafness or even cerebral palsy.  In some rare cases children with Down’s syndrome show the sings of autism as well.   

There are several typical brain disorders which are associated with autism.  Demyelination is a typical kind of brain damage which is caused by autism.  Demyelinaiton of the myelin sheath of nerves damages nerve transmission. “Information from neuropathology indicates that there may be abnormalities in the amygdala, hippocampus, septum, mamillary bodies, and the cerebellum of autistic individuals” (Bailey, 1996, p. 118).  Recent researches state that the problems with myelination may be results of vaccination. This information is still doubtful and it causes loud disputes in the society.  At the present moment the mercury vaccination is regarded as the main source of potential problems with myelination.

Another brain disorder which can be partially provoked by autism is a damage of pukinje cells. In general “Purkinje cells are a class of neurons located in the cerebullar cortex. Purkinje cells send inhibitory projections to the deep cerebellar nuclei, and constitute the sole output of all motor coordination in the cerebellar cortex.”  (Wing, 1985, p.  116). Autistic children often have damage of pukinje cells. The level of these cells is generally law for individuals who have autism. There are other disorders which are often associated with autism. There is no agreement in the question about connection between autism and genetics. Statistic proves that autistic children are more likely to be born in the families where there already are other people with autistic disorder.  When twins are born they are more likely to share same autistic feature if any.  All these facts prove that autism is very likely to have a genetic origin. At the same time scientists were not able to distinguish which genes are responsible for autism. This means that nobody can be sure 100 per cent in genetic origin of autism. At the present movement researches in this field believe that autism is a result of some genetic  combination and influence of the environment. Moreover, autism is a spectrum disorder. It can be manifested in many different symptoms and that makes it even more difficult to find its origins. Many people who have autism have also some kind of other disorders such as epilepsy, different mental illnesses, and sleep disorders.  It makes it even more difficult to distinguish the genetic origin of this disorder.

At the present moment researches in the field of autism do not provide one definite answer about the impact of this disorder on the structure of brain. There are many cases when children who got autism had absolutely normal adult life. This means that their brains were not changed because of autism. At the same time there are many cases when autism is accompanied with neurological or brain changes. The role of genetics in the formation of this disorder is also doubtful. Symptoms are so different that it becomes to distinguish genes which would be responsible for autism. Further research in this field will probably help to find origins of this disorder.

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