Breast Cancer

Breast cancer is one of the most common types of cancer and one of the most serious diseases of women. Breast cancer can be viewed as a cancerous tumor found in the cells of the breast.  It is very important to study this disease because it has negative consequences for women of different age groups. The statistical data shows that more than 450,000 women die each year throughout the entire world. One of the most dangerous types of breast cancer is TNBC or triple-negative subtype of breast cancer, which is represented by such tumors as ER- tumors, PR- tumors, and HER2- tumors. As a rule, these tumors are very aggressive because their activity leads to intensive tumor growth and creates large size tumors which are very dangerous for women’s health. It is known that the major treatment methods in this case include radiation therapy, chemotherapy and surgery. TNBC is also well-known as basal-like breast cancer. The statistics shows that TNBC has increased incidence in African women and in those patients who have germ-line BRCA1 mutations. Triple-negative breast cancer is considered to be the most dangerous of all types as women with TNBC diagnosis have the poorer survival than those who have other types of breast cancer.

The authors of the article report the following clinical finding about the triple-negative breast cancer subtype: there are many subtype-specific mutations which represent certain changes that can be used for concrete identification of certain genomic aberrations and some other events closely connected with tumor biology processes.

This finding is so novel because the authors’ common findings of TP53, RB1 and BRCA1 loss, with MYC amplification, provide evidence that these are “shared driving events for basal-like and serous ovarian carcinogenesis” (Comprehensive Molecular Portraits of Human Breast Tumors 7).

Based on the results of the study, the authors of the article make suggestions for therapeutic intervention on these types of breast cancer. In accordance with the study, many therapeutic advances have been made for clinically HER21disease. The authors of the study have found a number of additional somatic mutations that can be regarded as potential therapeutic targets in this group, such as “a high frequency of PIK3CA mutations, a lower frequency of PTEN and PIK3R1 mutations, genomic losses of PTEN and INPP4B and other druggable mutations” (Comprehensive Molecular Portraits of Human Breast Tumors 6)

The authors of the article explore possible similarities between two types of breast cancers: serous ovarian cancer and breast basal-like cancer. They successfully performed a number of analyses which help to compare ovarian cancer versus breast luminal cancer, ovarian cancer versus breast basal-like cancer, and breast basal-like cancer versus breast luminal cancers (Comprehensive Molecular Portraits of Human Breast Tumors 6).  The common features include “widespread genomic instability and common gains of 1q, 3q, 8q and12p, and loss of 4q, 5q and 8p” (Comprehensive Molecular Portraits of Human Breast Tumors 7). In addition, they identified the following common features: “BRCA1 inactivation, RB1 loss and cyclin E1 amplification, high expression of AKT3, MYC amplification and high expression and a high frequency of TP53 mutations” (Comprehensive Molecular Portraits of Human Breast Tumors 7). The authors reached the following conclusion: it is possible to find and employ common therapeutic approaches that will be supported by the activity processes of platinum analogues and taxanes in both types of breast cancer: in breast basal-like cancer and serous ovarian cancer.

The researchers’ novel observation is focused on the following facts: “diverse genetic and epigenetic alterations are converged phenotypically into four main breast cancer classes” (Comprehensive Molecular Portraits of Human Breast Tumors 4). However, it is consistent not only with convergent evolution of gene circuits, but also with breast cancer models’ clonal expansion and in the so-called vivo cell selection that gives clear explanation to the phenotypic heterogeneity which was observed within the above mentioned types of breast cancer. In addition, it is found that the PARADIGM identification of high HIF1- a/ARNT pathway activity proves that the malignancies could be rather susceptible to the possible effects of angiogenesis inhibitors and some types of bio-reductive drugs. They will be activated under certain hypoxic conditions.

 

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